Starts from: November 28, 2017
Start Time 7:00 pm End Time8:30 pm
Tuesday, 28th of November 2017, 7.00 pm, Romanian National Museum of Art – Auditorium Hall
The twelfth edition of the Bucharest Early Music Festival: „Clavecinissimo” will also be concluded with a harpsichord “incursion.” After our harpsichord “strolling” through Italy, France, Germany or the Iberian Peninsula, what could there be more appropriate than a Bach music concert?
We will enjoy an integral of concertos for two harpsichords and string orchestra BWV 1060 – 1062.
As we have seen and heard in the past weeks, Bach paid special attention to keyboard instruments which he explored in various ways while taking into account their technical features and tone quality. Just like French and Italian schools composers, Bach gave the harpsichord a solo role and created a vast repertoire for this instrument. Apart from the solo harpsichord pieces, Bach composed a string of works in which the harpsichord is the solo instrument accompanied by the orchestral ensemble. Furthermore, Bach put together interesting solo dialogues as well as concerts for two, three or even four harpsichords.
Johann Sebastian Bach composed seven concerts for solo harpsichord and orchestra (BWV 1052 – 1058), three concerts for two harpsichords and orchestra (BWV 1060 – 1062), two concerts for three harpsichords and orchestra (BWV 1063, 1064), and a concert for four harpsichords and orchestra (BWV 1065).
Bach was 32 years old when he was hired as Capellmeister at the court of Prince Leopold of Anhalt – Cöthen. During his time there (1717 – 1723), Bach created some of his most beautiful instrumental works, among them the Brandenburg Concertos (BWV 1046 – 1051). Then as of 1729 – when Bach became the conductor of the Leipzig ensemble Collegium Musicum – he grew even more prolific in the field of instrumental music. It is around 1736 that he composed the concerts for two harpsichords and orchestra. Bach put a lot of time and energy in this ensemble. Its members used to gather to play together in the garden of Gottfried Zimmerman’s coffee house, usually once a week (Wednesdays or Fridays) for two hours. With the occasion of various celebrations over the year, the ensemble’s members gathered even two times a week. Bach was highly regarded by his audience in Leipzig, being known as a highly skilled harpsichord player. It is therefore easy to see how his concertos for one or several harpsichords became a reality. Bach is frequently asked to give concerts as a soloist or accompanied by his sons and students, and it was the harpsichords that offered them such extraordinary “musical dialogue.”
The BWV 1060 concert did not survice in its original version. The oldest source is a copy made by Johann Cristoph Altnikol (1720 – 1759), a former student of Bach. It appears that this concert is a re-arrangement of Bach’s former Concerto for violin and oboe (BWV 1060 a). The way in which he conceived this work in terms of the contrasts created, the symetry of the phrases or the writing of the ornaments by real notes, reminds us of the Italian composition style.
The BWV 1061 Concerto has two variants: one with string orchestra accompaniments, the other one without accompaniments (BWV 1061 a). The first variant survived only through copies, with the oldest one seemingly belonging to Johann Christian Bach (1743 – 1814). The second variant survived in a copy made by Anna Magdalena Bach (to which Bach himself would have partly contributed) dating from around 1732 / 1733.
The BWV 1062 Concerto survived through a Bach manuscript although not as an original but as a variant annotated by “revised score” (circa 1736). In fact this revised score suggests in several places the transcription and “transformation” of this concerto from the re minor variant for two violins (BWV 1043) in a variant for two harpsichords.
The structure of all three concertos for two harpsichords are each made up of three parts in line with the fast – slow – fast pattern. Throughout these works, the two instruments are used equally, and the musical discourse is diverse and complex. This aspect can be easily perceived from a harmonic-melodic or metric-rhythmic perspective as well as in respect of the enhanced instrumental technique of the harpsichord. The use of polyphonic passages is another feature of these works. And example would be Fugue in the third part of the BWV 1061 Concerto, which requires an adequate understanding of the music and a good mastering of the instrumental technique by the two soloists.
English version Cosmin Bădulețeanu
Johann Sebastian Bach (1685 – 1750):
Concerto for two harpsichords and strings, BWV 1060
Allegro – Largo ovvero Adagio – Allegro
Concerto for two harpsichords and strings, BWV 1062
Fără indicație de tempo – Andante – Allegro assai
Concerto for two harpsichords and strings, BWV 1061 a
Fără indicație de tempo – Adagio ovvero Largo – Fuga
Steffen Schlandt / Raluca Enea – harpsichord
Mircea Ionescu / Melinda Béres – violin
Adorján Csaba – viola
Lázár Zsombor – cello
Szögyör Arpád – double bass
Steffen Markus Schlandt was born in 1972 in Brașov. He received his musical education from his father, Eckart Schlandt, with whom he started the study of piano and organ. He then attended the Faculty of Music in Cluj at the organ section (with prof. Ursula Philippi). Subsequently he continued with the studies of church music with Prof. Christoph Bossert at the Faculty of Music in Trössingen (Germany) as well as choire and orchestra conducting in Würzburg.
He received a scholarship through the D.A.A.D (the German Institute for External Affairs) and through the “Diakonisches Werk” (Deaconal Outreach Ministry).
As an organist, Steffen Schladt performed in several European countries, like Germany, France, Sweden, Italy, Croatia, Hungary, Romania.
He was a laureate of the D.A.A.D for outstanding result.
At the International organ contest in Schramberg in 2001 he received the 2nd prize and yet another prize for Lied accompaniment in Würzburg, in 2003.
In 2001 – 2004 he was the chorus master of the “Bach” society in Würzburg.
In 1999 he initiated the Festival for sacred music, “Diletto Musicale”, in Prejmer, which has been taking place yearly in August, eversince 1999. In September 2004 he started conducting the “Bach” choir and received the job of organist at the Black Church Brașov. Steffen Schlandt collaborated with the Faculty and the High School of Music in Brasov, as an associate professor for orchestra. In 2011 he defended his doctoral thesis with the title “Organ Music in Brașov and the Barsa Region”. In his post-doctoral work, “The Library of the Black Church”, he studied the old manuscripts in the library of the German high school in Brașov.
Raluca Enea is a graduate of the National University of Music of Bucharest – the Instrumental Pedagogy – piano and Interpretation – harpsichord sections, under the guidance of professor Ogneanca Lefterescu. As of 2005 she continued her harpsichord studies in Germany under the guidance of professors Harald Hoeren, Glen Wilson and Ketil Haugsand.
She attended masterclasses held by Menno van Delft (the Netherlands), Frédérick Haas (Belgium), Malcolm Bilson (USA), Ketil Haugsand (Norway), courses at the Sablé Academy under the guidance of professors Françoise Lengellé and Howard Crook (harpsichord and Baroque canto), as well as chamber music courses with Jan de Winne, Marcel Ponseele and Hervé Douchy (Belgium).
She held concerts in Romania, Germany, Norway, Hungary. Raluca is a lyrical artist of the “G. Enescu” Philharmonic of Bucharest, an associate professor and a PhD student of the National University of Music of Bucharest, and the artistic director of the Bucharest Early Music Festival. In Romanian she coordinates Early music educational and training projects supported by the Antiqva Cultural Association.
Mircea Ionescu graduated G. Enescu Highschool and the National University of Music in Bucharest (in 1997).
In 2003 he attended the Baroque violin courses at Karlsruhe Academy under the guidance of Anton Steck.
He was first a violin teacher and since 1999 he is singing in the Philharmonic Choir in Bucharest.
Between 2003 and 2009 he was the artistic manager of the Lutheran Church music series.
He collaborated with the violin player Mihail Ghiga and Collegio Stravagante; together they have performed in several important opera projects such as ”Deceballo”, ”Pyram & Thisbe”, ”Dido&Aeneas”, presented at the National Opera in Bucharest.
Since 2009 he became a member of the Balkan Baroque Band, an early music orchestra founded by Jean-Cristoph Frisch; together with BBB, Mircea performed in many musical projects in France, Thessaloniki, Athens, Sofia and Bucharest. In 2012, BBB under the musical leading of Jean-Luc Larguier, joined Wu-Wei, a musical project presenting Vivaldi’s ”Seasons”. They performed in the most important towns of France, Netherlands and Switzerland. Mircea also recorded with them a CD in Paris, inside this project.
In Romania, Mircea regularly plays in Early music festivals such as Sibiu, Brașov, Miercurea Ciuc, under the musical leading of Ulrike Titze.
He collaborated with Adrian Butterfield in opera projects such as Cavalieri’s ”Rappresentatione di anima e di corpo” and „The Fairy Queen” by G. Fr. Haendel. Together with Children Radio Choir, he played ”Esther” and ”Stabat Mater” by Pergolesi. He also conducted ”Dido&Aeneas” by Henry Purcell. Together with BBB, he yearly plays on different stages such as the Romanian Atenaeum.
Melinda Béres graduated the Music High School of Tg. Mureș, then the “Gh. Dima” Music Academy of Cluj-Napoca (bachelor’s and master’s studies) having studied with professor Victoria Nicolae. She is a laureate of many national contests in the period 1985-1988, as well as of the “Constantin Silvestri” (Târgu Mureș) and “C. Flesch” (Hungary) international contests.
She attended advanced courses with renowned artists, such as Alexandru Gavrilovici, Vasile Beluska, Trio Cadek, Jacques Saint-Yves, Devics Sándor, Jaap Schroeder, Mira Glodeanu, Benoît Douchy – Baroque violin.
She gave recitals in Romania and abroad (Germany, Hungary, Poland, Austria, Spain). She performed as a soloist with the orchestras of the Cluj-Napoca, Târgu Mureș, Sibiu, Arad, Oradea philharmonics, as well as with the Chamber Orchestra of the Gh. Dima” Music Academy of Cluj-Napoca. She is a founding member of the Arioso Quartet and successfully plays early music repertoires, being a member of the Affettouso trio and a collaborator of the Transylvania Baroque Ensemble, the Ciuc Chamber Orchestra, and the “Gli Studiosi di Sebastiano” of Bucharest. She participated many times at the Miercurea Ciuc Early Music Festival, at the Medieval Sighișoara Festival (2003 and 2007), and at the Bucharest Early Music Festival (2008, 2009, 2011, 2012, 2013).
Presently she is an assitant professor at the Chords Department of the “Gh. Dima” Music Academy of Cluj-Napoca and holds a PhD degree in music with a thesis entitled “Chords Quintet. Mozart hypostases” prepared under the scientific guidance of professors Francisc Lászlo and Gabriel Banciu.
Szőgyör Árpád was born in 1985 in Miercurea Ciuc. He graduated the double bass courses of ”Nagy István” Art Highschool (Miercurea Ciuc). Then he graduated double bass at Transilvania University in Brașov with Prof. Nicolae Pop.
Between 2008 and 2010, he attended the master courses of Hochschule für Musik Basel (Switzerland), with Botond Kostyák. In Basel he started the viola de gamba courses with Prof. Rebeka Ruso.
Now he is teaching at ”Nagy István” Art Highschool (Miercurea Ciuc).
He is a member of Codex Early music ensemble and of the Chamber orchestra Miercurea Ciuc. He often works with Balkan Baroque Band and Baroque Nomade ensembles; together, they had concerts especially in France and in the most important European cities.